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Ballet in Four Acts
Peter Ilyitch Tschaikovsky (Swan Lake, 1875-76)
Staged by George Balanchine after Lev Ivanov, Marius Petipa, and Nicholas Beriozoff. Choreography for the WALTZ (Act I) and for the MAZURKA, CZARDAS, and DANCE OF THE PRINCESSES (Act III) by George Balanchine
Scenery and costumes by Alexandre Benois, executed in the workshops of La Scala, Milan, and by Marie Gromtseff
September 11, 1969, Ballet du Grand Théâtre, Geneva. Conductor: Jean Meylan
Odette, Queen of the Swans, Patricia Neary; The Evil Genius, Carlos Kloster; Prince Siegfried, Karl Musil; Jester, Jean-Marie Sosso; corps de ballet
Performance Type
See Also
Source Notes

Alfonso Catá, Karl Reuling

Peter Ilyitch Tschaikovsky (Swan Lake, Op. 20, 1875-76; pas de deux originally intended for Act III, subsequently lost from 1877 until 1953)
George Balanchine
Costumes by Karinska. Lighting by Jack Owen Brown; subsequently by David Hays
March 29, 1960, New York City Ballet, City Center of Music and Drama, New York. Conductor: Robert Irving
Violette Verdy, Conrad Ludlow
Performance Type
See Also
Video Archives Recording
George Balanchine Foundation Interpreters Archive (complete), 2003, (Male Variation) 2018
A display piece for two leading dancers, choreographed to lost music intended for the third act of Swan Lake, rediscovered in 1953 in the Bolshoi archives. Balanchine began the choreography with Diana Adams and Jacques d’Amboise, but an injury to Adams caused him to recast the piece. The steps of the opening and closing part of the ballet are much the same as the original Adams-d’Amboise choreography.
Additional Productions
Male variation and coda differ from performer to performer. Male variation originally much longer.

1962   Les Grands Ballets Canadiens
1964   Royal Ballet
1964   Royal Danish Ballet
1969   Boston Ballet
1970   American Ballet Theatre
1970   Houston Ballet
1971   Ballet West
1972   English National Ballet (London Festival)
1972   San Francisco Ballet
1973   Grand Theatre de Geneve Ballet (Geneva, Switzerland)
1973   Los Angeles Ballet
1975   PACT Ballet (Performing Arts Council of the Transvaal—Johannesburg, South Africa)
1976   Eglevsky Ballet Company
1976   Joffrey Ballet
1976   Caracas New World Ballet
1977   Dance Theatre of Harlem
1977   North Carolina Dance Theatre
1977   U.S. Terpsichore (New York City)
1977   Washington Ballet
1978   Arizona Ballet Theatre
1979   Israel Ballet
1980   Alberta Ballet
1980   Balet Narodno Pozoriste (Belgrade)
1980   Connecticut Ballet
1980   Joffrey Ballet
1980   Matsuyama Ballet Company (Japan)
1980   New Jersey Ballet
1980   New York Dance Theatre
1980   Paris Opera Ballet
1980   Teatro alla Scala (Milan)
1981   American Ballet Theatre
1981   Ballet West
1981   BalletMet (Columbus, Ohio)
1981   Baltimore Ballet (closed—formerly Maryland Ballet)
1981   Richmond Ballet, The State Ballet of Virginia
1982   Atlanta Ballet
1982   Kansas City Ballet
1982   New Jersey Ballet
1982   Ballet du Nord (France)
1982   Ballett der Deutschen Oper (Berlin)
1983   Ballet de Nancy (France)
1983   Zurich Ballet (Ballett des Opernhauses Zurich)
1983   Ballett der Hamburgischen Staatsoper
1983   Hartford Ballet
1983   Pennsylvania Ballet
1983   Ballet del Teatro Lirico Nacional, Madrid
1983   Santa Barbara Ballet
1984   BalletMet (Columbus, Ohio)
1984   Cincinnati Ballet
1984   Dance Theatre of Harlem
1984   Festival Dance Theatre
1984   Pacific Northwest Ballet
1984   Royal Danish Ballet
1985   Birmingham Royal Ballet/Sadler’s Wells Royal Ballet
1985   Buffalo Ballet Theatre
1985   Dutch National Ballet
1985   Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre
1986   Ballet de San Juan
1986   Hong Kong Ballet
1986   Miami City Ballet
1986   NAPAC Ballet (Natal Performing Arts Council—Durban, South Africa)
1986   Royal Winnipeg Ballet
1986   Salzburg Landes Theatre
1986   Teatro alla Scala (Milan)
1987   Asami Maki Ballet (Japan)
1987   Les Ballets de Monte-Carlo
1987   Les Grands Ballets Canadiens
1987   Miami City Ballet
1987   Teatro dell’ Opera di Roma
1988   Ballet of Flanders/Koninklijk Ballet Van Vlaanderen/Royal Flemish Ballet
1988   Ballet West
1988   Ballett der Deutschen Oper (Berlin)
1988   New Jersey Ballet
1988   Star Dancers Ballet Company (Japan)
1989   Ballett der Deutschen Oper (Berlin)
1989   Hartford Ballet
1989   Dutch National Ballet
1989   Hong Kong Ballet
1989   NAPAC Ballet (Natal Performing Arts Council—Durban, South Africa)
1989   Washington Ballet
1990   Ballet de Nancy (France)
1990   Ballett der Bayerischen Staatsoper (Munich)
1990   Bellas Artes (Madrid, Spain)
1990   Dance Alive! State Touring Company of Florida
1990   Ballett der Deutschen Oper (Berlin)
1990   Heinz Bosl Stiftung Muenchen
1990   Les Ballets de Monte-Carlo
1990   Les Grands Ballets Canadiens
1990   Royal Danish Ballet
1990   Star Dancers Ballet Company (Japan)
1990   Teatro alla Scala (Milan)
1991   Kirov Ballet
1991   Royal Ballet
1991   Southern Ballet Theatre
1991   West Australian Ballet
1992   Ballet Argentino (Maipo Artes Y Entretenimientos)
1992   Ballet Chicago
1992   Bellas Artes (Madrid, Spain)
1992   Bellezza Club Japan
1992   Hong Kong Ballet
1992   Miami City Ballet
1992   Oregon Ballet Theatre
1992   Pennsylvania Ballet
1992   Royal Winnipeg Ballet
1993   Chamber Ballet Taipei
1993   Houston Ballet
1993   NAPAC Ballet (Natal Performing Arts Council—Durban, South Africa)
1993   Royal Ballet
1993   Royal Winnipeg Ballet
1993   Sacramento Ballet
1993   San Francisco Ballet
1993   Sarasota Ballet of Florida
1993   Star Dancers Ballet Company (Japan)
1994   Les Grands Ballets Canadiens
1994   Miami City Ballet
1995   American Ballet Theatre
1995   The Australian Ballet
1995   Ballet de San Juan
1995   Les Grands Ballets Canadiens
1995   The Little Orchestra Society
1995   National Ballet of Canada
1995   Paris Opera Ballet
1995   Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre
1995   Royal New Zealand Ballet
1995   Royal Winnipeg Ballet
1995   Universal Ballet Company (Korea)
1996   American Ballet Theatre
1996   Ballet Florida
1996   Ballett der Wiener Staatsoper (Vienna)
1996   Dayton Ballet
1996   Joffrey Ballet
1996   PACT Ballet (Performing Arts Council of the Transvaal—Johannesburg, South Africa)
1996   Paris Opera Ballet
1996   Russian Ballet Theatre
1996   Stuttgart Ballet
1997   Alabama Ballet/Ballet South
1997   American Ballet Theatre
1997   Aoyama Ballet Festival (Japan)
1997   Asami Maki Ballet (Japan)
1997   Ballet de Nancy (France)
1997   City Ballet of San Diego
1997   Les Grands Ballets Canadiens
1997   Miami City Ballet
1997   Milwaukee Ballet
1997   Nicolai & Kawashima Ballet Arts International
1998   The Australian Ballet
1998   Ballet de Zaragoza (Spain)
1998   Huntington Ballet Theatre
1998   Kirov Ballet
1998   Municipal Theatre of Berne
1998   Royal Winnipeg Ballet
1999   Ballet Argentino (Maipo Artes Y Entretenimientos)
1999   Boston Ballet
1999   Joffrey Ballet
1999   The Metropolitan Opera Association (Kirov Ballet at the Met)
1999   Royal Danish Ballet
1999   Royal Winnipeg Ballet
2000   Alabama Ballet/Ballet South
2000   American Ballet Theatre
2000   Asami Maki Ballet (Japan)
2000   Ballet Arlington
2000   Ballet Pacifica
2000   Chautauqua Institution (New York)
2000   Cincinnati Ballet
2000   Pacific Northwest Ballet
2000   World Ballet Festival/Japan Performing Arts Foundation
2001   Alabama Ballet/Ballet South
2001   Ballet Florida
2001   Chautauqua Institution (New York)
2001   Kansas City Ballet
2001   Washington Ballet
2002   Ballet Argentino (Maipo Artes Y Entretenimientos)
2002   Ballet Contemporaneo de Caracas
2002   Ballet de Santiago
2002   John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts
2002   Universal Ballet Company (Korea)
2003   American Ballet Theatre
2003   Croatian National Ballet
2003   Pacific Northwest Ballet
2003   Paris Opera Ballet
2003   Prix du Lausanne
2003   Royal Danish Ballet
2003   Sacramento Ballet
2003   Suzanne Farrell Ballet
2003   Tokyo Ballet/Japan Performing Arts Foundation
2004   Ballet West
2004   Bolshoi Ballet
2004   Brandywine Ballet (Pennsylvania)
2004   Ballet NY
2004   Litchfield Ballet Foundation
2004   National Ballet of China (Central)
2004   New Jersey Ballet Company
2004   New Orleans Ballet Theatre
2004   Royal Winnepeg Ballet
2004   San Francisco Ballet
2004   Joffrey Ballet
2005   American Ballet Theatre
2005   Ballet Chicago
2005   Ballet de San Juan
2005   Cincinnati Ballet
2005   Guangzhou Ballet
2005   Miami City Ballet
2005   Pacific Northwest Ballet
2005   Pacific Symphony Orchestra
2005   Staatsoper Unter den Linden
2005   Teatro Communale-Florence
2006   American Repertory Ensemble
2006   Festival Ballet
2006   Hong Kong Ballet
2006   Hungarian State Opera
2006   Korean National Ballet Company
2006   Pittsburgh Ballet Theatre
2006   National Ballet of Canada
2006   Royal Ballet
2007   Carolina Ballet
2007   Dance Alive! (State Touring Company of Florida)
2007   Nevada Ballet Theatre
2007   Ballet du Capitole de Toulouse
2008   Alberta Ballet
2008   Ballet Chicago
2008   Brandywine Ballet
2008   National Ballet of Canada
2008   Novosibirsk Ballet
2008   Sao Paulo Companhia de Dança
2009   Festival Ballet of Providence
2009   Slovak National Theater (Bratislava)
2010   Carolina Ballet
2010   Compania Nacional de Danza (Mexico City)
2010   Kansas City Ballet
2011   Carolina Ballet
2011   City Ballet of San Diego
2011   Het National Ballet
2011   Joffrey Ballet, The
2011   North Carolina Dance Theatre
2011   Opera di Roma
2012   Ballet de Capitale Toulouse
2012   Ballets de San Juan
2012   Bolshoi Ballet
2012   Carolina Ballet
2012   Royal Danish Ballet
2012   San Francisco Ballet
2013   Festival Ballet Providence
2013   Los Angeles Ballet
2013   National Opera and Ballet of Sofia
2013   Royal Ballet of Flanders
2014   Ballet Chicago
2014   Dance Theatre of Harlem
2014   Ekaterinburg Opera and Ballet Theatre
2014   Het Nationale Ballet
2014   Miami City Ballet
2014   Perm State Opera and Ballet Theatre
2014   Tbilisi Ballet
2015   Dance Theatre of Harlem
2015   Mariinsky Ballet
2015   Royal Ballet
2015   West Australian Ballet
2016   Bayerische Staatsoper
2016   Hungarian National Ballet
2016   Norwegian National Ballet
2016   Perm State Ballet
2016   San Francisco Ballet
2016   Stuttgart Ballet
2016   Tbilisi Ballet
2017   American Ballet Theatre
2017   Ballet Chicago
2017   Grand Rapids Ballet Company
2017   Pennsylvania Ballet
2017   Royal Danish Ballet
2018   Atlanta Ballet
2018   Dimensions Dance Theatre of Miami
2018   New National Theatre Tokyo/National Ballet Japan (NHK)
2019   Ballet Arkansas
2019   Tokyo Bunkamura
2020   Miami City Ballet
2021   Australian Ballet
2021   Birmingham Royal Ballet
2021   Norwegian National Ballet (Den Norske)
2021   Philadelphia Ballet (Formerly PAB)
2021   Royal Ballet
2021   Utah Metropolitan Ballet
2022   Australian Ballet
2022   Ballet Met
2022   Diablo Ballet
2022   Indianapolis Ballet
2022   New Jersey Ballet
2022   Oregon Ballet Theatre
2022   Washington Ballet

Recorded Performances
1994, Home Vision, Gala Tribute to Tchaikovsky;
1995, Nonesuch, The Balanchine Library: Dancing for Mr. B (excerpt);
1998, The Balanchine Library: Choreography by Balanchine [1979];
2001, Kultur, Peter Martins: A Dancer (male variation [excerpt]);
2002, VAI, Pas de Deux (excerpt [1984]);
2004, Kultur, Balanchine (male and female variations, coda);
2005, Films du Prieuré, Violette et Mr. B (excerpt);
2006, VAI, The Art of the Pas de Deux, Vol. 1 (excerpt [1984])
1973, RM Productions;
1977, Twentieth-Century Fox, The Turning Point (excerpt);
1978, The Film Company, Peter Martins: A Dancer (male variation [excerpt]);
1989, Seahorse Films, Dancing for Mr. B (excerpt)

1962 (ABC,Voice of Firestone)
1962 (BBC [London])
1964 (NBC,Bell Telephone Hour)
1965 (CBS)
1965 (CBC [Montreal])
1966 (PBS)
1968 excerpts (NBC, Bell Telephone Hour)
1969 (WTTW, Chicago)
1970 (CBC [Montreal])
1973 (RM Productions)
1979 (PBS, Dance in America)
1984 (PBS, Dance in America, “Balanchine”)
1985 (PBS, Gala of Stars)
1991 excerpts (French television, FR3)
1993 (Tribute to Tchaikovsky)
1993 (French television, FR3)
2001 (French television, “Violette and Mr. B.”)

Source Notes

Violette Verdy, Conrad Ludlow

Peter Ilyitch Tschaikovsky (excerpts from Swan Lake, Op. 20, 1875-76)
George Balanchine after Lev Ivanov
Scenery and costumes by Cecil Beaton. Scenery executed by Triangle Studios and Nolan Brothers; costumes executed by Karinska. Lighting by Jean Rosenthal
November 20, 1951, New York City Ballet, City Center of Music and Drama, New York. Conductor: Leon Barzin
Odette, Queen of the Swans, Maria Tallchief; Prince Siegfried, André Eglevsky; Benno, the Prince’s Friend, Frank Hobi; PAS DE TROIS: Patricia Wilde, 2 women; PAS DE NEUF: Yvonne Mounsey, 8 women; Von Rothbart, a Sorcerer, Edward Bigelow; Swans, 24 women; Hunters, 8 men
Performance Type
See Also
Video Archives Recording
George Balanchine Foundation Interpreters Archive (White Swan pas de deux), 1997, (Solo) 2017
Balanchine’s version of Swan Lake was based on Act II of the original four-act production, reproducing Ivanov’s WHITE SWAN ADAGIO (the pas de deux), the Swan Queen’s solo and coda entrance, and the DANCE OF THE FOUR CYGNETS (the pas de quatre); the entrance of the Swans derives from traditional versions. However, Balanchine removed all mime, greatly enlarged the role of the corps de ballet, and choreographed a new finale to music from Act IV. He subsequently made many more changes.
Additional Productions
New York City Ballet, changes from first years in repertory: 1956, traditional ending of pas de deux replaced by coda for corps de ballet (to Tchaikovsky’s original score rather than the traditional Drigo interpolation); 1959, PAS DE TROIS omitted and new Prince’s solo added to that music (Grand Waltz from Act II), replacing original Prince’s solo to fourth variation of pas de six (Act III), traditional entrance of Swan Queen in coda rechoreographed; 1964, traditional Swan Queen solo replaced by new choreography (to Un Poco di Chopin, Op. 72, no. 15, 1893, orchestrated by Drigo) and subsequently changed several times, Prince’s solo rechoreographed (to music from Act I pas de trois) and subsequently changed several times and often omitted, pas de quatre (DANCE OF THE FOUR CYGNETS) replaced by WALTZ BLUETTE for 12 Swans (to orchestrated version of Valse Bagatelle, Op. 72, no. 11 in E-flat), role of Benno omitted; 1980, traditional Swan Queen solo and entrance in coda restored.
New Productions by Balanchine Companies
1964, New York City Ballet: New scenery, costumes, and lighting by Rouben Ter- Arutunian for the New York State Theater

1954   San Francisco Ballet
1958   Eglevsky Ballet Company
1960’s   Geneva Ballet (Grand Theatre de Geneve [Ballet])
1961   Teatro alla Scala (Milan)
1965   Ballet of Los Angeles
1979   Los Angeles Ballet
1981   Eglevsky Ballet Company
1982   Kansas City Ballet
1994   Pennsylvania Ballet
1998   Pennsylvania Ballet
2008   Miami City Ballet
2013   Ballet Chicago
2014   Suzanne Farrell Ballet
2015   Miami City Ballet
2018   Ballet Chicago

Recorded Performances
2003, VAI, The Art of Maria Tallchief (excerpts [1954])

1954 excerpt (NBC, Kate Smith Hour)
1956 pas de deux (CBS, Look Up and Live, “Expression of Life in Motion”)
1959 pas de deux (PBS, “Classical Ballet”)

Source Notes

Additional music information provided by Robert Irving, Jack Reed; additional revisions information provided by Merrill Ashley, Arlene Croce, Rosemary Dunleavy, Robert Irving

George Balanchine
Performance Type
See Also
During the 1949 Ballet Theatre spring tour and New York season, Balanchine staged and to some degree altered the pas de deux from Don Quixote (Minkus, choreographed by Petipa), danced by Maria Tallchief and John Kriza, and the Black Swan pas de deux from Swan Lake Act III (Tchaikovsky, choreographed by Petipa), danced by Tallchief and Igor Youskevitch.
Source Notes

Balanchine, Maria Tallchief

Ballet music by Peter Ilyitch Tchaikovsky (primarily from Swan Lake, Act II, Op. 20, 1875-76)
George Balanchine
Twentieth-Century Fox. Produced by Darryl F. Zanuck. Associate Producer: Nunnally Johnson. Directed by Gregory Ratoff. Screenplay by Karl Tunberg, Don Ettlinger, and John O’Hara. Musical direction by David Buttolph. Cinematography by Edward Cronjager and Leon Shamroy. Film editing by Francis P. Lyon. Art direction by Richard Day and Joseph C. Wright. Set decoration by Thomas Little.
Countess Tanya Vronsky, Vera Zorina; Paul Vernay, Richard Greene; André Desormeaux, Erich von Stroheim; Polo, Peter Lorre; and others Ballet: Swan Queen, Vera Zorina; Prince, Lew Christensen; Evil One, Charles Laskey; 18 swans. (Laskey and Christensen were uncredited.)
Performance Type
See Also
An extremely abbreviated, rechoreographed version of Swan Lake, Act II, using such techniques as slow motion in jumps and fog for atmosphere that were developed with the choreographer’s collaboration. Some of the ideas for the corps de ballet were later used in the finale of Balanchine’s New York City Ballet version of Swan Lake [285]. There is a rehearsal sequence with Zorina in which the brief role of the Orchestra Leader is played by Balanchine, although credited to Fortunio Bonanova (a character actor, perhaps originally assigned the role).
Recorded Performances
2004, Kultur, Balanchine (SWAN LAKE ballet [excerpt])
Released 1940
Source Notes

Beth Genné, Arlene Croce, and David Vaughan (Fortunio Bonanova)